sábado, 10 de septiembre de 2011

21th Pleasure Scientific Revolution

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=pleasure&searchmode=none&p=0

pleasure (v.) Look up pleasure at Dictionary.com
"give pleasure to," 1550s, from pleasure (n.). Sexual sense by 1610s. Related: Pleasured; pleasuring.
pleasure (n.) Look up pleasure at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "condition of enjoyment," from O.Fr. plesir "enjoyment, delight" (12c.), from plaisir (v.) "to please," from L. placere (seeplease (v.)). Ending altered in English 14c. by influence of words in -ure (measure, etc.). Meaning "sensual enjoyment as the chief object of life" is attested from 1520s.
voluptuous Look up voluptuous at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "of desires or appetites," from O.Fr. voluptueux, from L. voluptuosus "full of pleasure, delightful," from voluptas"pleasure, delight," from volup "pleasurably," perhaps ultimately related to velle "to wish," from PIE *wol-/*wel- "be pleasing" (see will (v.)). Meaning "addicted to sensual pleasure" is recorded from mid-15c. Sense of "suggestive of sensual pleasure" is attested from 1816 (Byron); especially in reference to feminine beauty from 1839.
hedonist (n.) Look up hedonist at Dictionary.com
1822, in reference to the Cyrenaic school of philosophy that deals with the ethics of pleasure, from Gk. hedonikos "pleasurable," from hedone "pleasure," related to hedys "sweet," cognate with L. suavis (see sweet). A hedonist is properly the follower of any ethical system in which some sort of pleasure ranks as the highest good. The Epicurian identifies this pleasure with the practice of virtue.
epicure Look up epicure at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "follower of Epicurus," from L. Epicurus, from Gk. Epicouros (341-270 B.C.E.), Athenian philosopher who taught that pleasure is the highest good and identified virtue as the greatest pleasure; the first lesson recalled, the second forgotten, and the name used pejoratively for "one who gives himself up to sensual pleasure" (1560s), especially "glutton, sybarite" (1774). Epicurus' school opposed by stoics, who first gave his name a reproachful sense. Non-pejorative meaning "one who cultivates refined taste in food and drink" is from 1580s.
lust (n.) Look up lust at Dictionary.com
O.E. lust "desire, pleasure," from P.Gmc. *lustuz (cf. O.S., O.Fris., Du., Ger. lust, O.N. lyst, Goth. lustus "pleasure, desire, lust"), from PIE *las- "to be eager, wanton, or unruly" (cf. L. lascivus "wanton, playful, lustful;" see lascivious).

In M.E., "any source of pleasure or delight," also "an appetite," also "a liking for a person," also "fertility" (of soil). Sense of "sinful sexual desire, degrading animal passion" (now the main meaning) developed in late O.E. from the word's use in Bible translations (e.g. lusts of the flesh to render L. concupiscentia carnis [I John ii 16]); in other Germanic languages, the cognate words tend to still mean simply "pleasure."
epicurean (n.) Look up epicurean at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "follower of the philosophical system of Epicurus;" 1570s, “one devoted to pleasure,” from O.Fr. Epicurien, or fromepicure + -ian. As an adjective, attested from 1580s in the philosophical sense and 1640s with the meaning “pleasure-loving.”
surrey Look up surrey at Dictionary.com
"two-seated, four-wheeled pleasure carriage," 1895, from Surrey cart, an English pleasure cart (introduced in U.S. 1872), named for Surrey, England, where it was first made. The place name is O.E. suþrige (722), lit. "Southerly District" (relative to Middlesex).
anhedonia Look up anhedonia at Dictionary.com
"inability to feel pleasure," 1897, from Fr. anhédonie, coined 1896 by French psychologist Theodule Ribot (1839-1916) as an opposite to analgesia, from Gk. an-, privative prefix (see an- (1)), + hedone "pleasure" (see hedonist).
sport (v.) Look up sport at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "to take pleasure, to amuse oneself," from Anglo-Fr. disport, from O.Fr. desport "pastime, recreation, pleasure," fromdesporter "to divert, amuse, please, play" (see disport). Sense of "to amuse oneself by active exercise in open air or taking part in some game" is from late 15c. Meaning "to wear" is from 1778.
complacence Look up complacence at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "pleasure," from M.L. complacentia "satisfaction, pleasure," from L. complacentem (nom. complacens), prp. ofcomplacere "to be very pleasing," from com-, intensive prefix (see com-), + placere "to please" (see please). Sense of "pleased with oneself" is 18c.
yippee Look up yippee at Dictionary.com
interjection of pleasure, etc., 1920.
yum Look up yum at Dictionary.com
exclamation of pleasure, attested from 1878.
listless Look up listless at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from M.E. liste "pleasure, joy, delight," from O.E. lystan, from P.Gmc. *lustijanan "pleasure" (cf. Du. lusten, Ger. lüsten,O.N. lysta), from the same root as O.E. lust "desire" (see lust).
dolce vita Look up dolce vita at Dictionary.com
"life of pleasure," 1960, Italian, from title of Fellini's film.
freak out (n.) Look up freak out at Dictionary.com
also freakout “bad psychedelic drug trip or something comparable to one,” 1966 (despite an amusing coincidental appearance of the phrase dug up by the OED in "Fanny Hill" from 1749), from verbal phrase freak out, attested from 1965 in the drug sense (from 1902 in a sense "change, distort, come out of alignment"); see freak. Freak (n.) "drug user" is attested from 1945.
She had had her freak out, and had pretty plentifully drowned her curiosity in a glut of pleasure .... [Cleland, "Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure," 1749]
yummy Look up yummy at Dictionary.com
"delicious," 1899, from baby talk. Yum-yum as an exclamation of pleasure is recorded from 1878.
outing Look up outing at Dictionary.com
"airing, excursion, pleasure trip," 1821, from out. Earlier (mid-15c.) it meant "an act of putting out."
Vauxhall Look up Vauxhall at Dictionary.com
popular pleasure garden on south bank of Thames in London, c.1661-1859; the name is M.E. Faukeshale (late 13c.), "Hall or manor of a man called Falkes," an Old French personal name.
ad lib Look up ad lib at Dictionary.com
1811, from L. ad libitum "at one's pleasure, as much as one likes" (c.1600), from libere "to please" (see libido). First recorded as one word 1919 (v.), 1925 (n.).
fanny Look up fanny at Dictionary.com
"buttocks," 1920, Amer.Eng., from earlier British meaning "vulva" (1879), perhaps from the name of John Cleland's heroine in the scandalous novel "Fanny Hill or Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure" (1748). The fem. proper name is a dim. of Frances. The genital sense is still the primary one outside U.S., but is not current in Amer.Eng., a difference which can have consequences when U.S. TV programs and movies air in Britain.
stoical Look up stoical at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., in reference to philosophers, from stoic + -al (2). Related: Stoically. From 1570s as "indifferent to pleasure or pain."
masochism Look up masochism at Dictionary.com
"sexual pleasure in being hurt or abused," 1893, from Ger. Masochismus, coined 1883 by Ger. neurologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902), from name of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836-95), Austrian novelist who enshrined his submissive sexuality in "Venus in Furs."
delicacy Look up delicacy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "delightfulness; fastidiousness; quality of being addicted to sensuous pleasure," from delicate + -cy. Meaning "fineness, softness, tender loveliness" is from 1580s; that of "weakness of constitution" is from 1630s. Meaning "fine food, a dainty viand" is from early 15c.
Eden Look up Eden at Dictionary.com
early 13c., "delightful place," figurative use of the place described in Genesis, usually referred to Heb. edhen "pleasure, delight," but perhaps from Ugaritic base 'dn and meaning "a place that is well-watered throughout" (see also Aden).
sybarite Look up sybarite at Dictionary.com
1610s (implied in Sybaritical), "person devoted to pleasure," lit. "inhabitant of Sybaris," ancient Gk. town in southern Italy, whose inhabitants were noted for their love of luxury. From L. Sybarita, from Gk. Sybarites.
debauchee Look up debauchee at Dictionary.com
1660s, from Fr. débauché "debauched (person)," lit. pp. of debaucher (see debauch).
Debauchee, n. One who has so earnestly pursued pleasure that he has had the misfortune to overtake it. [Ambrose Bierce, "Devil's Dictionary," 1911]
enjoyable Look up enjoyable at Dictionary.com
1640s, “capable of being enjoyed,” from enjoy + -able. Meaning “affording pleasure” is from 1744. Related: Enjoyably;enjoyableness.
mirth Look up mirth at Dictionary.com
O.E. myrgð "joy, pleasure," from P.Gmc. *murgitha, noun of quality from *murgjo- (see merry). Mirthquake "entertainment that excites convulsive laughter" first attested 1928, in ref. to Harold Lloyd movies.
dainty (n.) Look up dainty at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "excellence, elegance; a luxury," from O.Fr. deintie (12c.) "price, value," also "delicacy, pleasure," from L. dignitatem (nom.dignitas) "greatness, rank, worthiness, worth, beauty," from dignus "worthy" (see dignity).
kick (n.) Look up kick at Dictionary.com
1520s, from kick (v.). Meaning "recoil (of a gun) when fired" is from 1826. Meaning "surge or fit of pleasure" (often as kicks) is from 1941; originally lit., "stimulation from liquor or drugs" (1844). The kick "the fashion" is c.1700.
winsome Look up winsome at Dictionary.com
O.E. wynsum "agreeable, pleasant," from wynn "pleasure, delight" (cf. Ger. Wonne "joy, delight;" see win) + -sum "-some." Apparently surviving only in northern English dialect for 400 years until revived 18c. by Hamilton, Burns, and other Scot. poets.
voluptuary Look up voluptuary at Dictionary.com
c.1600 (n. and adj.), from L. voluptuarius, from voluptarius, from voluptas “pleasure” (see voluptuous).
sixth Look up sixth at Dictionary.com
O.E. syxte, from siex (see six). Sixth sense "supernatural perception of objects" is attested from 1807; earlier it meant "the sense that apprehends sexual pleasure" (1690s).
aphrodisiac (n.) Look up aphrodisiac at Dictionary.com
1719, from Gk. aphrodisiakos "inducing sexual desire," from aphrodisios, "pertaining to Aphrodite; sexual pleasure; a temple of Aphrodite," Greek goddess of love and beauty. As an adjective from 1830 (earlier was aphrodisical, 1719)
rove Look up rove at Dictionary.com
"to wander with no fixed destination," 1530s, possibly a Midlands dialectal variant of northern English and Scottish rave "to wander, stray," from M.E. raven, probably from O.N. rafa "to wander, rove." Infl. by rover. Earliest sense was "to shoot arrows at a mark selected at pleasure or at random" (late 15c.).
delicate (adj.) Look up delicate at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "self-indulgent, loving ease; delightful; sensitive, easily hurt; feeble," from L. delicatus "alluring, delightful, dainty," also "addicted to pleasure, luxurious, effeminate;" of uncertain origin; related by folk etymology (and perhaps genuinely) to deliciae "a pet," and delicere "to allure, entice" (see delicious). Meaning "easily broken" is recorded from 1560s.
leave (n.) Look up leave at Dictionary.com
"permission," O.E. leafe, dat./acc. of leaf "permission," from W.Gmc. *lauba, cognate with O.E. lief "dear," the original idea being "approval resulting from pleasure." See also love, believe. In military sense, it is attested from 1771.
pleasurable Look up pleasurable at Dictionary.com
1570s, from pleasure + -able. Related: Pleasurability; pleasurably.
anaesthesia Look up anaesthesia at Dictionary.com
1721, "loss of feeling," Modern Latin, from Gk. anaisthesia "want of feeling, lack of sensation (to pleasure or pain)," from an-"without" (see an- (1)) + aisthesis "feeling," from PIE base *au- "to perceive" (see audience). As a surgical procedure, from 1846.
backspace Look up backspace at Dictionary.com
also back-space, 1899, in reference to keyboarding, from back (adv.) + space.
We have had the pleasure of examining one of the 1899 model Hammond typewriters, with the new back-space key. This new feature is certainly an improvement in the machine. ["The Phonetic Journal," March 11, 1899]
dative Look up dative at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from L. dativus "pertaining to giving," from datus "given" (see date (1)); in grammatical use from Gk. dotike (ptosis)"dative (case)," from dotikos "of giving nature," from dotos "given," from PIE base *do- "to give," from the same PIE root as the Latin word. In law, "that may be disposed of at pleasure," from 1530s.
revel (n.) Look up revel at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "riotous merry-making," from O.Fr. revel, from reveler "be disorderly, make merry," from L. rebellare "to rebel" (seerebel). The verb meaning "to feast in a noisy manner" is first recorded early 14c. The meaning "take great pleasure in" first recorded 1754.
joy Look up joy at Dictionary.com
early 13c., "feeling of pleasure and delight," from O.Fr. joie, from L. gaudia, pl. of gaudium "joy," from gaudere "rejoice," from PIE base *gau- (cf. Gk. gaio "I rejoice," M.Ir. guaire "noble"). Joy-riding is Amer.Eng., 1908.
guillotine (n.) Look up guillotine at Dictionary.com
"The name of the machine in which the axe descends in grooves from a considerable height so that the stroke is certain and the head instantly severed from the body." ["Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure," January 1793], 1791, from Fr. guillotine, named in allusion to French physician Joseph Guillotin (1738-1814), who as deputy to the National Assembly (1789) proposed, for humanitarian and efficiency reasons, that capital punishment be carried out by beheading quickly and cleanly on a machine, which was built in 1791 and first used the next year. The verb is first attested 1794.
junket Look up junket at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "basket in which fish are caught or carried," from M.L. juncata "rush basket," perhaps from L. juncus "rush." Shifted meaning by 1520s to "feast, banquet," probably via notion of a picnic basket, which led to extended sense of "pleasure trip" (1814), and then to "tour by government official at public expense for no discernable public benefit" (1886, Amer.Eng.). Cf. It. cognategiuncata "cream cheese" (originally made in a rush basket).
consolation Look up consolation at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "act of consoling," from O.Fr. consolacion (11c., Mod.Fr. consolation) "solace, comfort; delight, pleasure," from L.consolationem (nom. consolatio-) "consoling, comforting," noun of action from consolat-, pp. stem of consolari (see console (v.)).Consolation prize is recorded from 1886.
gratify Look up gratify at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "to bestow grace upon;" 1530s, "to show gratitude to," from Fr. gratifier (16c.) or directly from L. gratificari "to do favor to, oblige, gratify," from gratus "pleasing" (see grace) + root of facere "make, do, perform" (see factitious). Meaning "to give pleasure to" is from 1560s. Related: Gratified; gratifying.
goody Look up goody at Dictionary.com
also goodie, "something tasty," 1745, from good (adj.) + -y (2); adj. use for "sentimentally proper" is 1830 (especially in reduplicated form goody-goody, 1871). As an exclamation of pleasure, by 1796. Goody also used since 1550s as a shortened form of goodwife, a term of civility applied to a married woman in humble life; hence Goody Two-shoes, name of heroine in 1760s children's story who exulted upon acquiring a second shoe.
relish Look up relish at Dictionary.com
1520s, "taste, flavor," alteration of reles "scent, taste, aftertaste," (early 14c.), from O.Fr. relais, reles "something remaining, that which is left behind," from relaisser (see release). Meaning "enjoyment of the taste or flavor of something" is attested from 1640s. Sense of "condiment" is first recorded 1797. The verb is attested from 1560s (implied in relished); sense of "to enjoy, take pleasure in" is from 1590s.

delight (n.) Look up delight at Dictionary.com
c.1200, delit, from O.Fr. delit "pleasure, delight, sexual desire," from delitier "please greatly, charm," from L. delectare "to allure, delight, charm, please," frequentative of delicere "entice" (see delicious). Spelled delite until 16c. when it changed under influence of light, flight, etc.
carousel Look up carousel at Dictionary.com
"merry-go-round," 1670s, earlier "playful tournament of knights in chariots or on horseback" (1640s), from Fr. carrousel "a tilting match," from It. carusiello, possibly from carro "chariot," from L. carrus (see car).
A new and rare invencon knowne by the name of the royalle carousell or tournament being framed and contrived with such engines as will not only afford great pleasure to us and our nobility in the sight thereof, but sufficient instruction to all such ingenious young gentlemen as desire to learne the art of perfect horsemanshipp. [letter of 1673]
venery Look up venery at Dictionary.com
"pursuit of sexual pleasure," late 15c., from M.L. veneria "sexual intercourse," from L. venus (gen. veneris) "sexual love, sexual desire" (see Venus). In earlier use it may have been felt as a play on now obsolete homonym venery "practice or sport of hunting, the chase" (early 14c.), from O.Fr. venerie, from L. venari "to hunt" (see venison).
gallant (adj.) Look up gallant at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "showy, finely dressed," from O.Fr. galant "courteous," earlier "amusing, entertaining; lively, bold" (14c.), prp. of galer"rejoice, make merry," generally held to be from Latinized verb form of Frankish *wala- "good, well," from P.Gmc. *wal- (cf. O.H.G. wallon "to wander, go on a pilgrimage"), from PIE *wel- "to wish, will" (see will (v.)), "but the transition of sense offers difficulties that are not fully cleared up" [OED]. Sense of "politely attentive to women" was adopted 17c. from French. The noun, "man of fashion and pleasure," is from mid-15c.; earlier "dissolute man, rake" (late 14c.).
luxury Look up luxury at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "sexual intercourse;" mid-14c., "lasciviousness, sinful self-indulgence," from O.Fr. luxurie, from L. luxuria "excess, luxury," from luxus "excess, extravagance, magnificence," probably a figurative use of luxus (adj.) "dislocated," which is related to luctari"wrestle, strain." Meaning "sensual pleasure" is late 14c. Lost its pejorative taint 17c. Meaning "habit of indulgence in what is choice or costly" is from 1630s; that of "sumptuous surroundings" is from 1704; that of "something enjoyable or comfortable beyond life's necessities" is from 1780. First used as an adjective 1930.
leisure Look up leisure at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "opportunity to do something," also "time at one's disposal," from O.Fr. leisir (Fr. loisir) "permission, leisure, spare time," noun use of infinitive leisir "be permitted," from L. licere "be permitted" (see licence). The -u- appeared 16c., probably on analogy of words like pleasure. Related: Leisurely.
agree Look up agree at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to be to one's liking;" also "to give consent," from O.Fr. agreer "to receive with favor, take pleasure in" (12c.), from phrase a gré "favorably, of good will," lit. "to (one's) liking," from L. ad "to" (see ad-) + gratum "pleasing," neut. of gratus (seegrace); the original sense survives best in agreeable. Meaning "to be in harmony in opinions" is from late 15c. Related: Agreed;agreeing.
enjoy Look up enjoy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "rejoice, be glad" (intrans.), from O.Fr. enjoir "to give joy, rejoice, take delight in," from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + joir"enjoy," from L. gaudere "rejoice" (see joy); Sense of "have the use or benefit of" first recorded early 15c. (replacing O.E. brucan; see brook (v.)). Meaning "take pleasure in" is 1650s. Related: Enjoyed; enjoying; enjoys.
ease (n.) Look up ease at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from O.Fr. aise "comfort, pleasure, well-being; opportunity," of unknown origin, despite attempts to link it to various Latin verbs. The earliest senses in French appear to be 1. "elbow-room" (from an 11th century Hebrew-French glossary) and 2. "opportunity." This led Sophus Bugge to suggest an origin in V.L. asa, a shortened form of L. ansa "handle," which could be used in the figurative sense of "opportunity, occasion," as well as being a possible synonym for "elbow," since L. ansatus "furnished with handles" also was used to mean "having the arms akimbo." OED editors report this theory, and write, "This is not very satisfactory, but it does not appear that any equally plausible alternative has yet been proposed."
Eros Look up Eros at Dictionary.com
god of love, late 14c., from Gk. eros (pl. erates), lit. "love," related to eran "to love," erasthai "to love, desire," of uncertain origin. Freudian sense of "urge to self-preservation and sexual pleasure" is from 1922. Ancient Greek distinguished four ways of love:erao "to be in love with, to desire passionately or sexually;" phileo "have affection for;" agapao "have regard for, be contented with;" and stergo, used especially of the love of parents and children or a ruler and his subjects.
rush (v.) Look up rush at Dictionary.com
mid-14c. (implied in rushing), "to drive back or down," from Anglo-Fr. russher, from O.Fr. ruser "to dodge, repel" (see ruse). Meaning "to do something quickly" is from 1650s; transitive sense of "to hurry up (someone or something)" is from 1850. Football sense originally was in rugby (1857). Fraternity/sorority sense is from 1896 (originally it was what the fraternity did to the student). The noun is attested from late 14c.; sense of "mass migration of people" (especially to a gold field) is from 1848, Amer.Eng. Meaning "surge of pleasure" is from 1960s. Rush hour first recorded 1890.
treat (v.) Look up treat at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "negotiate, bargain, deal with," from O.Fr. traitier (12c.), from L. tractare "manage, handle, deal with," originally "drag about," frequentative of trahere (pp. tractus) "to pull, draw" (see tract (1)). Meaning "to entertain with food and drink by way of compliment or kindness (or bribery)" is recorded from c.1500. Sense of "deal with in speech or writing" (early 14c.) led to the use in medicine (1781), "to attempt to heal or cure." The noun is first recorded late 14c., "action of discussing terms;" sense of "a treating with food and drink" (1650s) was extended by 1770 to "anything that gives pleasure."
gourmand Look up gourmand at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "glutton," from M.Fr. gourmant "glutton," originally an adj., "gluttonous," of uncertain origin. Not connected withgourmet. Meaning "one fond of good eating" is from 1758.
The gourmand is one whose chief pleasure is eating; but a gourmet is a connoisseur of food and wines. In England the difference is this: a gourmand regards quantity more than quality, a gourmet quality more than quantity. [Brewer, "Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," Philadelphia, 1898]
nuts (adj.) Look up nuts at Dictionary.com
"crazy," 1846, from earlier be nutts upon "be very fond of" (1785), which is possibly from nuts (n., pl.) "any source of pleasure" (1610s), from nut (q.v.). Sense influenced probably by metaphoric application of nut to "head" (1846, e.g. to be off one's nut "be insane," 1860).

Connection with the slang "testicle" sense has tended to nudge it toward taboo. "On the N.B.C. network, it is forbidden to call any character a nut; you have to call him a screwball." ["New Yorker," Dec. 23, 1950] "Please eliminate the expression 'nuts to you' from Egbert's speech." [Request from the Hays Office regarding the script of "The Bank Dick," 1940] This desire for avoidance accounts for the euphemism nerts (c.1925).
schadenfreude Look up schadenfreude at Dictionary.com
"malicious joy in the misfortunes of others," 1922, from Ger., lit. "damage-joy," from schaden "damage, harm, injury" (see scathe) + freude, from O.H.G. frewida "joy," from fro "happy," lit. "hopping for joy," from P.Gmc. *frawa- (see frolic).
What a fearful thing is it that any language should have a word expressive of the pleasure which men feel at the calamities of others; for the existence of the word bears testimony to the existence of the thing. And yet in more than one such a word is found. ... In the Greek epikhairekakia, in the German, 'Schadenfreude.' [Richard C. Trench, "On the Study of Words," 1852]
honeymoon Look up honeymoon at Dictionary.com
1540s, hony moone, but probably much older, "indefinite period of tenderness and pleasure experienced by a newly wed couple," from honey in reference to the new marriage's sweetness, and moon in reference to how long it would probably last, or from the changing aspect of the moon: no sooner full than it begins to wane. French has cognate lune de miel, but German version isflitterwochen (pl.), from flitter "tinsel" + wochen "week." In figurative use from 1570s. Specific sense of "post-wedding holiday" attested from c.1800; as a verb in this sense from 1821. Related: Honeymooned; honeymooning.
bait (v.) Look up bait at Dictionary.com
"to torment or goad (someone unable to escape, and to take pleasure in it)," c.1300, beyten, a figurative use from the literal sense of "to set dogs on," from the medieval entertainment of setting dogs on some ferocious animal to bite and worry it (the literal use is attested from c.1300); from O.N. beita "to cause to bite," from P.Gmc. *baitan (cf. O.E. bætan "to cause to bite," O.H.G. beizzen "to bait," M.H.G. beiz "hunting," Ger. beizen "to hawk, to cauterize, etch"), causative of *bitan (see bite); the causative word forked into the two meanings of "harass" and "food offered."
welcome Look up welcome at Dictionary.com
O.E. wilcuma, exclamation of kindly greeting, from earlier wilcuma (n.) "welcome guest," lit. "one whose coming is in accord with another's will," from willa "pleasure, desire, choice" (see will (v.)) + cuma "guest," related to cuman (see come). Cf. O.H.G.willicomo, M.Du. wellecome. Meaning "entertainment or public reception as a greeting" is recorded from 1530. You're welcome as a formulaic response to thank you is attested from 1907. Welcome mat first recorded 1951; welcome wagon is attested from 1961. The verb is O.E. wilcumian.
gusto Look up gusto at Dictionary.com
1620s, from It. gusto "taste," from L. gustus "a tasting," related to gustare "to taste, take a little of," from PIE base *geus- "to taste, choose" (cf. Skt. jus- "enjoy, be pleased," Avestan zaosa- "pleasure," O.Pers. dauš- "enjoy"), a root that forms words for "taste" in Greek and Latin, but mostly meaning "try" or "choose" in Germanic and Celtic (cf. O.E. cosan, cesan "to choose," Goth.kausjan "to test, to taste of," O.H.G. koston "try," Ger. kosten "taste of"). The semantic development could have been in either direction. In English, guste "organ of taste, sense of taste," is mid-15c., from French.
hortatory Look up hortatory at Dictionary.com
1580s, from M.Fr. hortatoire and directly from L.L. hortatorius "encouraging, cheering," from hortatus, pp. of hortari "exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigate," intensive of horiri "urge, incite, encourage," from PIE base *gher- "to like, want" (cf. O.E.giernan "to strive, desire, yearn;" Goth. gairnei "desire;" Gk. khresthai "to lack, want, use," kharis "grace, favor," khairein "to rejoice, delight in;" Skt. haryati "finds pleasure, likes," harsate "is aroused;" Avestan zara "effort, aim;" Rus. zhariti "awake desire, charm").
chaise Look up chaise at Dictionary.com
1701, "pleasure carriage," from Fr. chaise "chair" (15c.), variant of chaire (see chair) due to 15c.-16c. Parisian accent habit of swapping of -r- and -s-, often satirized by French writers. French chair and chaise then took respectively the senses of "high seat, throne, pulpit" and "chair, seat." Chaise lounge (1800) is corruption of Fr. chaise longue "long chair," the second word confused in English with lounge.
sweet (adj.) Look up sweet at Dictionary.com
O.E. swete "pleasing to the senses, mind or feelings," from P.Gmc. *swotijaz (cf. O.S. swoti, Swed. söt, Dan. sød, M.Du. soete, Du.zoet, O.H.G. swuozi, Ger. süß), from PIE base *swad- (Skt. svadus "sweet;" Gk. hedys "sweet, pleasant, agreeable," hedone"pleasure;" L. suavis "sweet," suadere "to advise," properly "to make something pleasant to"). To be sweet on someone is first recorded 1690s. Sweet-talk (v.) dates from 1936 (in "Gone With the Wind"). Sweet sixteen first recorded 1826. Sweet dreams as a parting to one going to sleep is attested from 1908. Sweet and sour in cooking is from 1723, not originally of oriental food.
look (v.) Look up look at Dictionary.com
O.E. locian "see, gaze, look, spy," from W.Gmc. *lokjan (cf. O.S. lokon, M.Du. loeken, O.H.G. luogen, Ger. dial. lugen "to look out"), of unknown origin, perhaps cognate with Bret. lagud "eye." In O.E., usually with on; the use of at began 14c. Meaning "to have a certain appearance" is from c.1400. Noun meaning "an act of looking" is c.1200; meaning "appearance of a person" is from late 14c. To look down upon in the figurative sense is from 1711; to look down one's nose is from 1921. To look forward "anticipate" is c.1600; meaning "anticipate with pleasure" is mid-19c. In look sharp (1711) sharp originally was an adv. "sharply." Look after"take care of" is from late 14c.; look into "investigate" is from 1580s; to not look back "make no pauses" is colloquial, first attested 1893. Look up "research in books or papers" is from 1690s.
party Look up party at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "part, portion, side," from O.Fr. partie "a part, a party" (12c.), lit. "that which is divided," from fem. pp. of partir "to divide" (see part (v.)). Political sense of "side in a contest or dispute" evolved by 1300; meaning "a person" is from mid-15c. Sense of "gathering for social pleasure" is first found 1716, from general sense of persons gathered together (originally for some specific purpose, e.g. dinner party, hunting party). The verb is first attested 1922, from the noun. Related: Partied; partying. Phrase the party is over is from 1937; party line is first recorded 1834 in the sense of "policy adopted by a political party," 1893 in the sense of "telephone line shared by two or more subscribers." Party pooper is from 1951, Amer.Eng.
pain (n.) Look up pain at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "punishment," especially for a crime; also "condition one feels when hurt, opposite of pleasure," from O.Fr. peine, from L.poena "punishment, penalty" (in L.L. also "torment, hardship, suffering"), from Gk. poine "punishment," from PIE *kwei- "to pay, atone, compensate" (see penal). The earliest sense in Eng. survives in phrase on pain of death. The verb meaning "to inflict pain" is first recorded c.1300. Phrase to give (someone) a pain "be annoying and irritating" is from 1908; localized as pain in the neck(1924) and pain in the ass (1934), though this last may be the original, unrecorded sense and the others euphemisms. Pains "great care taken (for some purpose)" is first recorded 1520s (in the singular in this sense, it is attested from c.1300). First record of pain-killer is from 1853.
verse Look up verse at Dictionary.com
c.1050, "line or section of a psalm or canticle," later "line of poetry" (late 14c.), from Anglo-Fr. and O.Fr. vers, from L. versus"verse, line of writing," from PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend" (see versus). The metaphor is of plowing, of "turning" from one line to another (vertere = "to turn") as a plowman does. O.E. had fers, an early West Germanic borrowing directly from Latin. Meaning "metrical composition" is recorded from c.1300; sense of "part of a modern pop song" (as distinguished from the chorus) is attested from 1927. The English N.T. first divided fully into verses in the Geneva version (1550s).
Verse was invented as an aid to memory. Later it was preserved to increase pleasure by the spectacle of difficulty overcome. That it should still survive in dramatic art is a vestige of barbarism. [Stendhal "de l'Amour," 1822]
ergophobia Look up ergophobia at Dictionary.com
"fear of work," 1905, coinage by British medical man Dr. William Dunnett Spanton, from Gk. ergos "work" (see urge (v.)) + -phobia "fear" (see phobia).
Mr. W.D. Spanton (Leeds) considered that the most prominent causes of physical degeneration were--efforts to rear premature and diseased infants, absurd educational high pressure, cigarette smoking in the younger generation, and late hours at night; in fact, the love of pleasure and ergophobia in all classes of society. He considered that there was too much cheap philanthropy, that life was made too easy for the young poor, and that by modern educational methods proper parental discipline was rendered almost impossible. [report on the 73rd annual meeting of the British Medical Association, "Nature," Aug. 3, 1905]
lap (n.) Look up lap at Dictionary.com
O.E. læppa (pl. læppan) "skirt or flap of a garment," from P.Gmc. *lapp- (cf. M.Du. lappe, O.H.G. lappa, Ger. Lappen "rag, shred," O.N. leppr "patch, rag"), from PIE base *leb- "be loose, hang down." Sense of "lower part of a shirt" led to that of "upper legs of seated person" (c.1300). Used figuratively ("bosom, breast") from late 14c.; e.g. lap of luxury, first recorded 1802. From 15c.-In 17c. the word (often in plural) was a euphemism for "female pudendum," but this is not the source of Lap dance, which is first recorded 1993.
To lap dance, you undress, sit your client down, order him to stay still and fully clothed, then hover over him, making a motion that you have perfected by watching Mister Softee ice cream dispensers. [Anthony Lane, review of "Showgirls," "New Yorker," Oct. 16, 1995]
That this is pleasure and not torment for the client is something survivors of the late 20c. will have to explain to their youngers.
merry Look up merry at Dictionary.com
O.E. myrige "pleasing, agreeable," from P.Gmc. *murgijaz, which probably originally meant "short-lasting" (cf. O.H.G. murg"short," Goth. gamaurgjan "to shorten"). Connection to "pleasure" is likely via notion of "making time fly" (cf. Ger. Kurzweil"pastime," lit. "a short time;" O.N. skemta "to amuse," from skamt, neut. of skammr "short"). The only exact cognate for meaning outside Eng. was in M.Du. (cf. M.Du. mergelijc "joyful"). For vowel evolution, see bury.
Bot vchon enle we wolde were fyf, þe mo þe myryer. [c.1300]
The word had much wider senses in M.E., e.g. "pleasant-sounding" (of animal voices), "fine" (of weather), "handsome" (of dress), "pleasant-tasting" (of herbs). Merry-man "companion or follower of a knight, outlaw, etc." is attested from late 14c. The first record of merry-go-round is from 1729. Merry-bout "an incident of sexual intercourse" was low slang from 1780. Merry-begot"illegitimate" (adj.), "bastard" (n.) is from 1785. Merrie England (now frequently satirical or ironic) is 14c. meri ingland, originally in a broader sense of "bountiful, prosperous." Merry Monday was 16c. term for "the Monday before Shrove Tuesday" (Mardi Gras).


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