martes, 3 de diciembre de 2013

Weaving Tradition and Innovation

Emerging Paradigms in A Changing World, Part 2
CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS  Langscape Volume 2, Issue 13
Weaving Tradition and Innovation How can we merge our biocultural heritage and our innovative ideas to forge a sustainable future for our earth and its peoples?
With Guest Editor: Kierin Mackenzie
Langscape is an extension of the voice of Terralingua. It supports our mission by educating the minds and hearts about the importance and value of biocultural diversity. We aim to promote a paradigm shift by illustrating biocultural diversity through scientific and traditional knowledge, within an elegant sensory context of articles, stories and art.
•  Expressions of interest -  December 9, 2013
•  Full contributions  -  January 10, 2014
The challenge we put out in the next issue of Langscape is how we can we weave tradition and innovation together to actively transform our current global paradigm. We would especially like to hear from students, youth and other voices that are not commonly heard in order to bring forth a diversity of perspectives and fresh ideas.
Current global paths have led to large scale destruction of biological and cultural diversity globally, often through processes that are genocidal and ecocidal in nature. These processes are causing the breakdown of the dynamic continuity of tradition—of the ever-evolving intergenerational transmission of the values, beliefs, knowledges, languages, and practices that human communities have developed over centuries and millennia, and through which each community has defined, maintained, and creatively transformed its cultural identity and integrity.
As residents of this world, we are the children of previous generations, siblings with all that lives, and the parents of the world to come. As the 1992 Kari-oca Declaration of the World’s Indigenous Peoples so aptly puts it, “we walk to the future in the footprints of our ancestors.” That is the very essence of cultural continuity: change that is not disruptive and destructive, but that respects the past in creating the future, seamlessly weaving together tradition and innovation.
How can the linguistic, cultural, and biological treasures handed down to us be utilized in order to ensure their and our continuing existence? How do we draw on ancestral knowledge, practices, and arts to devise new solutions for our global predicament? How do we adapt the gifts, values and teachings of the past to create a brighter future? What new ideas harmonise well with these gifts to reinvigorate their usage where they have declined?  How do they strengthen us and the generations to come?
We are entering uncharted waters as a species. No-one really can know what is to come, and how we are to turn the corner.  All we can do is shed light on our own corner, share stories of what has worked and has not worked, share ideas, share seeds, and work to leave future generations with the same gifts we were given. This issue is to be a container of seeds for planting. This issue is to be a celebration of that which is growing. This issue is to highlight new flowers on ancient vines.
We are looking for authors who through their roles as students and innovators of techniques ancient and recent can see where changes for a more resilient future can be and are being made.
Please submit your expression of interest - your idea in one or two paragraphs – by December 9, so that we can solicit full contributions as soon as possible. 
Please send your inquiries and submissions directly to the LangscapeEditor, Ortixia Dilts: . 
If you wish, you can also cc: your communications to our Guest Editor, Kierin Mackenzie:
Thank you all. We are both very excited about this issue. We look forward to hearing from you, as it is your contributions which that make Langscape a special and delightful read.
Kierin and Ortixia Contributors' Guidelines can be found at:

"The Professor game"
by Richard Mandell 
Read today's "Professor Game Revisited" below. . .
December 2, 2013
The Great Stratification

By Jeffrey J. Williams 
The Chronicle of Higher Education

magine a diorama in an American Museum of Occupations showing the evolution of the
professor. The exhibit starts in the early 1800s with an austere, black-suited man
in a minister's collar, perhaps looking over the shoulder of a student at a rustic
desk, with a Greek text open in front of him. In the next scene, from around 1900,
he morphs into a pince-nez-wearing gentleman in starched collar and cravat, at a
podium delivering a lecture. The professor of 1950 adopts the rumpled bearing of a
tweed jacket, pointing with his pipe to a poem or a physics equation on a
chalkboard. In the next frame, circa 1990, she wears jeans and is sitting in front
of a computer screen.
How would the diorama represent the professor of 2020?
Some observers predict that she won't exist: In the memorable phrase of Frank
Donoghue, a professor of English at Ohio State University, we are living in the age
of "the last professors." Less apocalyptic commentators say the professor has
experienced "deprofessionalization."
Both views try to capture the squeeze on professorial jobs, but they misrecognize
fundamental aspects of the changes that have occurred. Rather than extinction, we
have seen the steady expansion of academic labor over the past century, and rather
than "deskilling," we are undergoing more rather than less professionalization. What
has been going on is what sociologists call "differentiation" and "stratification."
We are in the era of the Great Stratification.
The diorama of the year 2020 might represent a group. Like a health-care
advertisement featuring a team of smiling staff in scrubs, it might show one
professor sporting a black turtleneck and a little gray, next to a Chuck Taylor-shod
grad student to signify a little youth, an assistant director of the writing center
on the side, ready to help, and a professor-administrator in a navy suit smiling
behind them. It takes an academic program.
Given that there are more than 1.4 million college faculty members in the United
States, it is clear that they are not disappearing. But the all-purpose professor
has faded. We have tended to see the professor as a single figure, but he is now a
multiple being, of many types, tasks, and positions. And instead of the traditional
idea of a community of scholars, all roughly equivalent, we now have a distended
pyramid, with a huge base of people whose primary job is teaching, often entry-level
courses; a layer of specialists in particular fields and researchers who may hardly
even teach above them; and a thin spire of administrators commanding the peak.
The spread of academic labor follows the trend of other professions. The idea of the
professional usually evokes a generic image—the old-fashioned family doctor, for
instance, who hung out his shingle—but now we have a much more variegated system of
alpha and beta practitioners. And rather than the ideal of being independent and
roughly equivalent to their peers, most professionals now work in hierarchical
bureaucratic structures.
Along with the greater differentiation of tasks over the past 50 years, we have
experienced a progressively steeper stratification of academic workers. Sometimes
people complain about professionalization and blame it for problems in academe, but
we should recall that the movement toward professionalization after World War II
advanced almost all fields and reflected a more equitable society, certainly more
than at any point in the past century. The academic profession was an open avenue to
the middle class; now it seems more like a confusing intersection with expensive
tolls, one lane leading to a rewarding career, another to uneven pavement, poor
conditions, and dead ends. You're not sure which you're on until you've already gone
down the road.

he 20th century was, among other things, the century of the professional. At its
start, "professional, technical, and kindred" workers mustered roughly 4 percent of
the work force. Through the 19th century, most Americans worked on farms, and the
major labor category in government statistics, other than agriculture, was "maker."
That steadily changed through the 1900s, and, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, about 31 million Americans now work in "professional and related
occupations," which account for 22 percent of those employed. That vies with "sales
and office occupations," which enlist some 33 million, as the predominant category,
and exceeds "service occupations" (roughly 25 million), "production, transportation,
and material moving occupations" (16.5 million), and "management occupations" (15
However, the numbers don't simply translate to expanding fleets of highly paid
doctors, lawyers, and professors. The category includes those from professions with
less status, such as registered nurses and schoolteachers, along with the alpha
professions. (Nurse aides and dental assistants, however, are in the subsidiary
category of "service occupations," and "professionals" like police and firefighters
are counted in "protective services.") The professions have become more ordinary,
not quite blue collar but not necessarily white collar, either.
The characteristic that links them is that they typically require a bachelor's
degree and often a master's or higher, and typically a rigorous form of
accreditation. (For instance, RNs require a degree from a nursing program as well as
a license, and even humble schoolteachers are encouraged to get a master's within
five years in many states.) A special body of knowledge, conferred in higher
education and affirmed by a professional organization, still distinguishes
professions from other occupations.
Medicine provides a good illustration of the changes since the 1970s, when academic
jobs began their current phase of evolution. While physicians and surgeons have
increased at a faster rate than that of the general population—from about 260,000 in
1960 to 691,000 in 2010—the greatest growth has been in beta healthcare
professionals. Nurses have increased from 600,000 in 1960 to 2,737,000 in 2010,
nearly a fivefold increase, about double the rate of doctors. In addition, new
intermedial professions have developed, such as nurse practitioners and physician's
assistants, which began as formal programs only in the late 60s. By around 2008 ,
they numbered about 128,000 and 84,000, respectively, and both are expected to
double by 2025.
Think of it this way: When was the last time a doctor gave you a shot? (I can
remember: It was in 1964, when I was 5 and had a bad case of poison ivy, and the
doctor did not have a light touch.) Now nurses do that, and if you spend time in a
hospital, you are as likely to see a physician's assistant or nurse practitioner as
a doctor.
We tend to think of professions as continuous, but one of the lessons of from the
Pulitzer-winning history The Social Transformation of American Medicine, by Paul
Starr, a professor of sociology and public affairs, is how changeable the nature of
doctoring has been. Another lesson is how medicine has become a managed profession,
administered by hospitals and HMOs since the 1980s. That has resulted not in
deprofessionalization, but in greater specialization. And while less autonomous,
doctors still receive high salaries.

s higher ed has undergone some of the same changes as medicine, a complicated web of
academic labor has developed. For the student, the result is similar to the patient
seeking health care: When she enters college, she only occasionally encounters a
full-fledged professor; she is more likely to see beta professionals—the adjunct
comp teacher, the math TA, the graduate assistant in the writing center, the
honors-program adviser, and the staff members who run the programs.
It is not that professors have disappeared. In fact, there are some half a million
with full-time, tenure-stream jobs. Their jobs have changed, though, and in some
respects they have paralleled physicians in becoming increasingly specialized,
relieved from teaching to do research, or teaching only advanced courses, or
administering, whether directing the writing program, founding the new center of
interdisciplinary studies, or stepping out to become an assistant dean.
Still, it's important to remember that most professors do a good deal of
teaching—particularly those at community colleges, four-year colleges, and master's
institutions. We take research universities as the standard, but they are not really
typical of most people's experience. Since the early 1800s, the American system has
included a capacious range of institutions, although the aim in the postwar years
was toward parity, state systems striving to be as good as the Ivies. Now there is
greater disparity among institutions, further intensifying the disparity among
Another dimension of academic labor has been the swelling numbers of administrators
and other professionals, as the political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg details in The
Fall of the Faculty: The Rise of the All-Administrative University and Why It
Matters (Oxford University Press, 2011). Whereas there were about 250,000
administrators and professional staff members in 1975, about half the number of
professors, by 2005 there were over 750,000, easily outnumbering tenure-stream
The chief difference from medicine is the steep drop in pay, benefits, and job
security for those who hold beta positions. Over the past 40 years, we have
witnessed the rapid growth of contingent professors—part-time, adjunct,
nonpermanent—who now account for three-quarters of college teachers. While
health-care professionals in beta positions earn decent wages—nurses average about
$65,000 a year, and nurse practitioners and physician's assistants over $90,000—and
usually have secure jobs, the majority of college teachers hold part-time
appointments, typically paid $2,000 to $3,000 per course, and have no job security.
The rise of contingent faculty is frequently explained with the knowing invocation
of "supply and demand," but let's put that notion to rest once and for all. The
demand for higher education has increased relatively steadily over the past
century—from about 238,000 enrolled students in 1900 to 598,000 in 1920, 1.49
million in 1940, 4.1 million in 1960, 12.1 million in 1980, and over 20 million
now—so there is a palpable need for college teachers. Just as there is a need for
health-care workers.
I am not suggesting that health care has attained a utopian labor system—not to
mention that, if we were to extend our examination to the full range of labor on
campuses or in hospitals, we would also have to look at secretaries, housekeepers,
grounds crews, and the many other workers who keep the institutions operating. But
the example of nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician's assistants shows that it
is possible to build a more rational and fair system of professional labor than we
have. The market, after all, is not a natural force but a human arrangement, based
on a social contract, protected and encouraged by law as well as regulated by it.
Rather than a horizontal community of scholars, or even a pyramid with reasonable
steps of rank, the American university has adopted its own harsh class structure:
the mass of the contingent (and other workers) struggling at the bottom,
tenure-stream professors in the middle class speaking for the university's
intellectual values and productions, and superstar faculty and administrators in the
upper class setting its direction and taking the greatest rewards.
Graphically, it is not really a pyramid any longer, but a large, pancake-shaped
bottom tier barely above level, a visible middle layer above it, and finally a
barely visible aerie rising above them.
The shape of academic labor is profoundly unbalanced.
And shouldn't those of us in a humanistic institution, presumably charged to
inculcate humane values and preserve the best of our culture, support and enact fair
labor practices, certainly above a living wage and with secure terms?
We might argue that stratification is a natural development of social systems as
they become larger and more differentiated. But such severe economic stratification
is another matter, and it arises from the agreements and contracts of people. For
the resigned or cynical, it is perhaps no surprise that higher education is a
fractal of the winner-take-all society, but how much disparity are we willing to

he comparison with medicine, however inexact, suggests a few ideas that we might be
able to use. It is worth bearing in mind that health-care professionals maintain
their employment conditions in part through their professional organization, and
particularly for nurses, unionization. And each sector is organized according to its
particular tasks and on its own terms.
One idea is to take the model of nurse practitioners and physician's assistants and
formalize credentials for "teaching practitioners." There has been a good deal of
discussion about reforming the Ph.D., particularly about shortening the time to
degree. For instance, in a much-discussed essay, "How to Make a Ph.D. Matter," first
published in The New York Times Magazine in 1996 and elaborated in his book The
Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University (Norton,
2010), Harvard University's Louis Menand proposed that we consider shortening the
Ph.D. to "a determinate length," like a law degree, which is customarily three
years. His reasoning was that, if so many people were not getting full-time jobs and
were taking nearly 10 years to finish, then we need a more pliable Ph.D. But perhaps
we need other degrees besides the Ph.D.
In the residual model that we have, everyone works to attain the same all-purpose
degree for very different jobs. We should consider if we would be better served to
have an intermedial degree—more advanced than the M.A., which seems more a
preparatory than terminal degree for academics, but less lengthy and more practical
than the current Ph.D. In turn, the Ph.D. could be reserved for specialist
positions, advanced researchers, or field experts.
There has also been repeated discussion about the lack of teacher training in Ph.D.
programs. Just a few weeks ago, Derek Bok, former president of Harvard, declared in
The Chronicle, "The most glaring defect of our graduate programs, however, is how
little they do to prepare their students to teach." Perhaps there might be a degree
track that emphasizes new modes, techniques, and technologies of instruction.
Nurse practitioners and physician's assistants, who undergo two to three years of
postgraduate training, can diagnose and prescribe for many conditions, as well as
refer cases to physicians. We might imagine a system of teaching practitioners who
design curriculum and have job security, rather than filling their jobs in the ad
hoc way that we do now. It is not merely for their sake, but to stabilize the
experience of college for most undergraduates, which in turn might help remedy
My belief is that we should have a horizontal model of academic work, one that both
honors the tradition of a community of scholars and carries out the practices of
unionism, seeking cooperative control of the workplace. But it seems as if the
strongest move for "non-tenure-track faculty" is to develop their own recognized
credential and job track. It would afford a species of professional control. Those
of us who hold professorships should support this effort because the obvious
exploitation of college teachers devalues our own jobs, as well as violates the
spirit of the university.
The development of the "knowledge economy" has been touted as great
progress—everyone will be an educated professional! You won't have to get your hands
dirty, and you'll be highly paid! But that relies on the myth of the halcyon
professional. Instead the knowledge economy has ushered in a deeply stratified
What good is knowledge if it brings us gross inequality and unfair terms for a
majority of those who work, or with whom we work?

Jeffrey J. Williams is a professor of English and literary and cultural studies at
Carnegie Mellon University. He has recently inaugurated a new book series, co-edited
with Chris Newfield, called Critical University Studies, published by Johns Hopkins
University Press

miércoles, 27 de noviembre de 2013

El Propósito de la Educación

¿qué sentido tiene lo que hoy conocemos por educación? ¿Debe limitarse a hacer de los alumnos buenos expertos en superar exámenes? ¿O la educación debería preparar para comprender el proceso total de la vida?

lunes, 25 de noviembre de 2013

Melquisedec Chamán

Melquisedec es un personaje sagrado y misterioso, mencionado en algunos pasajes de los Textos Sagrados indicados al final de esta página. Su importancia es extraordinaria si se considera que Jesús y Abraham pertenecieron al orden de Melquisedec y que él está sin padre, sin madre, sin genealogía, sin principio de días ni fin de vida, hecho parecido al Hijo de Dios y queda para siempre sacerdote. "Tú eres Sacerdote para siempre según el orden de Melquisedec" (Sl 109,4).

Es Sumo Sacerdote del Dios Altísimo.
También O.M.Aivanhov habla con grande devoción y admiración en más puntos de sus obras. Se aconseja, entre los otros, la lectura del Comentarios del Apocalipsis - cap.3 Melquisedec y la enseñanza de los dos principios."
Aivanhov recuerda que la figura de Melquisedec es vuelta a llamar no sólo en el Génesis, en los Evangelios y en las epistolas de Puablo, pero también en el apocalipsis de Juan:
  • El Personaje misterioso de que habla Juan en el apocalipsis es Melquisedec;
  • la nueva Jerusalén Celeste de que habla Juan es unido a la obra de Melkisedec.
Según las Tradiciones Esotéricas de Oriente y Occidente, Melquisedec (Melkitsedek) es el Maestro de todos Maestros, es el ejecutor de la paz y de la justicia (tsedek) y todos los grandes Maestros que han llevado civilización y luz a las botaduras pueblos en el curso de los siglos provienen del orden de Melquisedec. Su orden representa la verdadera Tradición del amor, de la Sabiduría, y de la Verdad. A este Orden es inspirado la enseñanza de Deunov y Aivanhov. El mismo Deunov Él ha dedicado algunos cantos sagrados.
Se sugiere la lectura por las explicaciones sobre: el Santa Cena, "ser sacrificador de lo empinado", la Jerusalén celeste"...
Padres de la Iglesia se sirvieron de esta figura bíblica para hacer de ello la imagen del Cristo, y Salem identificando con Jerusalén. Melquisedec es el modelo bíblico del sacerdote...
"En efecto es él del que ha sido escrito con espíritu profético: "Tú eres para siempre sacerdote según el orden de Melquisedec": es decir no al modo de Aarón, cuyo sacerdocio, propagándose por la generación, pertenece a un ministerio temporal, y de hecho es dejado junto a la ley del Viejo Testamento; pero al modo de Melquisedec en que se significó primera la figura del pontífice eterno. Y como no es referido de cuál padres haya nacido, se entiende que en él es enseñado aquéllos cuya generación no puede contarse. Así, llegando a la humana naturaleza el misterio de este divin sacerdocio, no se propaga por la generación, ni es elegido aquellos que la carne y la sangre ha formado. Es dejado el privilegio de los padres; es abolida la jerarquía de las familias: la Iglesia recibe como pastores los que el Espíritu santo ha preparado. En tal modo, en el pueblo, el adoptado a la progenie divina, totalmente sacerdotal y real, no consiguen la unción los privilegiados por el origen terrenal, pero da a luz el sacerdocio el favor de la gracia celeste"(discurso de S.Leone Magno
"Il Salmo 110 le atribuye al Rey-Mesías un raro carácter sacerdotal por directa investidura de Dios: "Tú eres para siempre sacerdote / según el orden de Melquisedec", Sal 109,4. El día antes de su muerte en cruz, Cristo instituyó en el Cenáculo la eucaristía. Él también ofreció pan y vino.... Él llevó así a cabo la profecía de la antigua alianza, atada a la oferta sacrifical de Melchisedek. Justo por este - recuerda la Carta a los Judíos - "Él... se volvió causa de salvación eterna por todos los que le obedecen, habiendo sido proclamado por Dios a sumo sacerdote a la manera de Melquisedec"... lo llevaremos a contacto con nuestra vida asechada por mil peligros, oprimidos de preocupaciones y de penas, sometida al lento pero inexorable desgaste del tiempo. Lo escoltaremos haciendo subir verso de él el homenaje de nuestros cantos y nuestras súplicas: "Bone Pastor, panis verdaderos.. Buen Pastor, verdadero pan - le diremos con confianza - o Jesús, piedad de nosotros / nodrizas y defiendes nos nos entrega a los bienes eternos. Tú que todo sayas y puoi/che nos nutres sobre la tierra / conduces tus fratelli/alla mesa del cielo/nella alegría de tus san.(Homilía del Papa Juan Pablo II del 22 de junio de 2000
"La Carta a los Judíos... verá en el rostro de Melquisedec el perfil del sacerdote perfecto Jesús Cristo como padre Turoldo cantó: "Nadie ha sabido nunca a el,/donde viniera, quién fuera sabemos: qué era sacerdote del Dios empinado. / Fue figura de otro, el solo rey que nosotros libres y ello salvi:/un rey que ruegas por luomo y el ami,/ma que vaya a morir por los otros;/uno que se ofrezca en el pan y en el vino/al a Dios empinado en señal de gracias:/il pan y el vino de hombres libres, / tras Abraham desde siempre en cammino"(
Melquisedec es el Rey del Mundo, el Soberano de la Tierra de los Vivientes, la Tierra de Inmortalidad. En todas las tradiciones se hace referencia a la existencia de una tierra paradisíaca, Agharta, Shamballa etc, gobernada por un Soberano Pontífice, rey de Justicia y Paz (Guenon en el Rey del Mundo - Cap.VI-"Melki-sedeq). También se habla de Sanat-Kumara, literalmente "El Eterno Muchacho" (sagrados textos del esoterismo de la India). Se puede leer "Mission de l'Inde" por el Marqués Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1910) y "Bestias, Hombres y Dioses" (1924) por el F. Ossendowski, viajero y escritor.
Sobre el sentido de la expresión "Tierra" de los Vivientes mencionada en los Salmos ("Yo caminaré delante de lo eterno, sobre la Tierra de los Vivientes se puede leer cap.XX " La Tierra de los Vivientes" del libro Los frutos del arbol de la vida.
"El Gran Maestro Melquisedec es reconocido por la mayoría de los países y pueblos a los que llegó con la CRUZ y la ROSA viviente, y son muchas las traducciones milenarie que lo reconocen como el portador del PAN y el VINO, o emergiendo victorioso de las Aguas de la vida" (
Melquisedec es citado en el Paraíso de Dante Alighieri (canto VIII, 125-La Divina Comedia) Melquisedec en el cuento sagrado, hace una breve aparición constituyendo el precedente del rey-sacerdote de la tradición hebrea.
Vuelve sobre

Salmos 110 (Salmo de David)

1 Jehovah dijo a mi señor: "Siéntate a mi diestra, hasta que ponga a tus enemigos como estrado de tus pies."
2 Jehovah Enviará desde Sion el cetro de tu poder; domina en medio de tus enemigos.
3 En el Día de tu poder, tu pueblo se te Ofrecerá voluntariamente en la hermosura de la santidad. Desde el nacimiento de la aurora, Tú tienes el Rocío de la juventud.
4 Jehovah Juró y no se Retractará: "Tú eres sacerdote para siempre, Según el orden de Melquisedec."
5 El Señor Está a tu mano derecha; Aplastará a los reyes en el Día de su ira.
6 Juzgará entre las naciones; las Llenará de Cadáveres. Aplastará a los jefes sobre la extensa tierra.
7 Beberá del arroyo en el camino, por lo cual Levantará su cabeza.
Vuelve sobre

Hebreos 5

1 Pues todo sumo sacerdote que es tomado de entre los hombres es constituido para servicio a favor de los hombres delante de Dios, para que ofrezca ofrendas y sacrificios por los pecados.
2 El puede sentir Compasión de los ignorantes y de los extraviados, ya que él también Está rodeado de debilidad.
3 Y por causa de esta debilidad debe ofrecer sacrificio, tanto por sus propios pecados como por los del pueblo.
4 Y nadie toma esta honra para Sí, sino porque ha sido llamado por Dios, como lo fue Aarón.
5 Así también Cristo no se Glorificó a Sí mismo para ser hecho sumo sacerdote, sino que le Glorificó el que le dijo: Hijo Mío eres Tú; yo te he engendrado hoy.
6 Como también dice en otro lugar: Tú eres sacerdote para siempre Según el orden de Melquisedec.
7 Cristo, en los Días de su vida Física, habiendo ofrecido ruegos y Súplicas con fuerte clamor y Lágrimas al que le Podía librar de la muerte, fue Oído por su temor reverente.
8 Aunque era Hijo, Aprendió la obediencia por lo que Padeció.
9 Y habiendo sido perfeccionado, Llegó a ser Autor de eterna Salvación para todos los que le obedecen,
10 y fue proclamado por Dios sumo sacerdote Según el orden de Melquisedec.
11 De esto tenemos mucho que decir, aunque es Difícil de explicar, porque habéis llegado a ser tardos para Oír.
12 Debiendo ser ya maestros por el tiempo transcurrido, de nuevo tenéis necesidad de que alguien os instruya desde los primeros rudimentos de las palabras de Dios. Habéis llegado a tener necesidad de leche y no de alimento Sólido.
13 Pues todo el que se alimenta de leche no es capaz de entender la palabra de la justicia, porque Aún es niño.
14 Pero el alimento Sólido es para los maduros, para los que por la Práctica tienen los sentidos entrenados para discernir entre el bien y el mal.
Vuelve sobre

Hebreos 6

1 Por tanto, dejando las doctrinas elementales de Cristo, sigamos adelante hasta la madurez, sin poner de nuevo el fundamento del arrepentimiento de obras muertas, de la fe en Dios,
2 de la doctrina de bautismos, de la Imposición de manos, de la Resurrección de los muertos y del juicio eterno.
3 Y esto haremos si es que Dios lo permite.
4 Porque es imposible que los que fueron una vez iluminados, que gustaron del don celestial, que llegaron a ser participantes del Espíritu Santo,
5 que también probaron la buena palabra de Dios y los poderes del mundo venidero,
6 y después recayeron, sean otra vez renovados para arrepentimiento; puesto que crucifican de nuevo para Sí mismos al Hijo de Dios y le exponen a vituperio.
7 Porque la tierra, que bebe la lluvia que muchas veces cae sobre ella y produce hierba para el provecho de aquellos que la cultivan, recibe la Bendición de Dios.
8 Pero la que produce espinos y abrojos es desechada, Está cercana a la Maldición, y su fin es ser quemada.
9 Pero aunque hablamos Así, oh amados, en cuanto a vosotros estamos persuadidos de cosas mejores que conducen a la Salvación.
10 Porque Dios no es injusto para olvidar vuestra obra y el amor que habéis demostrado por su nombre, porque habéis atendido a los santos y lo Seguís haciendo.
11 Pero deseamos que cada uno de vosotros muestre la misma diligencia para ir logrando plena certidumbre de la esperanza hasta el final,
12 a fin de que no Seáis perezosos, sino imitadores de los que por la fe y la paciencia heredan las promesas.
13 Porque cuando Dios hizo la promesa a Abraham, puesto que no Podía jurar por otro mayor, Juró por Sí mismo
14 diciendo: De cierto te bendeciré con Bendición y te multiplicaré en gran manera.
15 Y Así Abraham, esperando con suma paciencia, Alcanzó la promesa.
16 Porque los hombres juran por el que es mayor que ellos, y para ellos el juramento para Confirmación pone fin a todas las controversias.
17 Por esto Dios, queriendo demostrar de modo convincente a los herederos de la promesa la inmutabilidad de su consejo, interpuso juramento
18 para que, por dos cosas inmutables en las cuales es imposible que Dios mienta, tengamos un Fortísimo consuelo los que hemos acudido para asirnos de la esperanza puesta por delante.
19 Tenemos la esperanza como ancla del alma, segura y firme, y que penetra aun dentro del velo
20 donde Entró Jesús por nosotros como precursor, hecho sumo sacerdote para siempre Según el orden de Melquisedec.
Vuelve sobre

Hebreos 7

1 Porque este Melquisedec, rey de Salem y sacerdote del Dios Altísimo, Salió al encuentro de Abraham que Volvía de derrotar a los reyes, y le bendijo.
2 Asimismo, le dio Abraham los diezmos de todo. En primer lugar, su nombre significa "rey de justicia", y también era rey de Salem, que significa "rey de paz".
3 Sin padre ni madre ni Genealogía, no tiene principio de Días ni fin de vida; y en esto se asemeja al Hijo de Dios, en que permanece sacerdote para siempre.
4 Mirad, pues, Cuán grande fue aquel a quien aun el patriarca Abraham le dio los diezmos del Botín.
5 Ciertamente, aquellos descendientes de Leví que han recibido el sacerdocio tienen, Según la ley, mandamiento de recibir los diezmos del pueblo, es decir, de sus hermanos, aunque ellos también son descendientes de Abraham.
6 Pero aquel, cuya Genealogía no es contada entre ellos, Recibió los diezmos de Abraham y bendijo al que Tenía las promesas. 7 Indiscutiblemente, el que es menor es bendecido por el mayor.
8 Aquí los hombres que mueren reciben los diezmos, mientras que Allí los recibe aquel acerca de quien se ha dado testimonio de que vive.
9 Y por decirlo Así, en la persona de Abraham también Leví, el que recibe los diezmos, dio el diezmo
10 Porque él Todavía estaba en el cuerpo de su padre cuando Melquisedec le Salió al encuentro.
11 Ahora bien, si fuera posible lograr la Perfección por medio del sacerdocio Levítico (porque bajo éste el pueblo ha recibido la ley), ¿qué necesidad Habría Aún de que se levantase otro sacerdote Según el orden de Melquisedec, y que no fuese llamado Según el orden de Aarón?
12 Porque de haber cambio de sacerdocio, es necesario que también se haga cambio de ley.
13 Pues aquel de quien se dice esto es de otra tribu, de la cual nadie ha servido en el altar.
14 Porque es evidente que nuestro Señor Nació de la tribu de Judá, sobre la cual Moisés no dijo nada en cuanto al sacerdocio.
15 Esto es aun Más evidente si otro sacerdote se levanta a la semejanza de Melquisedec,
16 quien no ha sido constituido conforme al mandamiento de la ley acerca del linaje carnal, sino Según el poder de una vida indestructible.
17 Pues de él se da este testimonio: Tú eres sacerdote para siempre Según el orden de Melquisedec.
18 A la verdad, el mandamiento anterior fue abrogado por ser ineficaz e Inútil,
19 porque la ley no Perfeccionó nada. Sin embargo, se introduce una esperanza mejor, por la cual nos acercamos a Dios.
20 Y esto no fue hecho sin juramento.
21 Los otros fueron hechos sacerdotes sin juramento, mientras que éste lo fue por el juramento del que le dijo: Juró el Señor y no se Arrepentirá: "Tú eres sacerdote para siempre."
22 De igual manera, Jesús ha sido hecho fiador de un pacto superior.
23 A la verdad, muchos fueron hechos sacerdotes, porque debido a la muerte no Podían permanecer.
24 Pero éste, porque permanece para siempre, tiene un sacerdocio perpetuo.
25 Por esto también puede salvar por completo a los que por medio de él se acercan a Dios, puesto que vive para siempre para interceder por ellos.
26 Porque tal sumo sacerdote nos Convenía: santo, inocente, puro, apartado de los pecadores y exaltado Más Allá de los cielos.
27 El no tiene cada Día la necesidad, como los otros sumos sacerdotes, de ofrecer sacrificios, primero por sus propios pecados y luego por los del pueblo; porque esto lo hizo una vez para siempre, ofreciéndose a Sí mismo.
28 La ley constituye como sumos sacerdotes a hombres débiles; pero la palabra del juramento, posterior a la ley, Constituyó al Hijo, hecho perfecto para siempre.
Vuelve sobre

Gènesis 14 (17-24)

17 Cuando Abram Volvía de derrotar a Quedarlaomer y a los reyes que estaban con él, el rey de Sodoma Salió a su encuentro en el valle de Savé, que es el valle del Rey.
18 También Melquisedec, rey de Salem, quien era sacerdote del Dios Altísimo, Sacó pan y vino
9 y le bendijo diciendo: "Bendito sea Abram del Dios Altísimo, creador de los cielos y de la tierra.
20 Bendito sea el Dios Altísimo, que Entregó a tus enemigos en tus manos." Y Abram le dio a él el diezmo de todo.
21 Entonces el rey de Sodoma dijo a Abram: Dame las personas, y toma para ti los bienes.
22 Abram Respondió al rey de Sodoma: He hecho votos a Jehovah, el Dios Altísimo, creador de los cielos y de la tierra,
23 que no tomaré ni un hilo, ni la correa de un calzado, nada de todo lo que es tuyo, para que no digas después: "Yo Enriquecí a Abram."
24 Yo no tomaré nada, excepto lo que han comido los Jóvenes y la parte de los hombres que fueron conmigo: Aner, Escol y Mamre. Ellos Sí Tomarán su parte.
Vuelve sobre


  • Ofrecida de Melquisedec, Iglesia de S.Giacomo de Vicza (
  • iglesia de S.Vitale (
  • Mosaicos de la basílica de Santa Maria Mayor a Roma ( V sec.)
  • Sobre la fachada de la catedral francesa de Reims ( XIIIS sec.) incuentro entre Abraham y el rey de Salem
  • Rubens en el 600 "El triunfo dellEucaristia" - Iglesia de Santa Maria del Retortijón-Ragusa
  • frescos que representan Melquisedec en el acto de ofrecer pan y vino a Abraham, (
  • iglesia de S. Lorenzo (1633-47) Sacrificio de Melquisedec pintado por G.B. Tiepolo
  • en la catedral de Chartres, Melquisedec es puesto al primer sitio entre los padres veterotestamentari, a él Abraham, Moisés Samuele y Davide
Vuelve sobre

Movimiento browniano


alias (n.) Look up alias at
"assumed name," c.1600, from alias (adv.).
alias (adv.) Look up alias at
mid-15c., "otherwise called," from Latin alias "at another time, in another way," from alius "(an)other," from PIE *al- "beyond" (cf. Sanskrit anya "other, different," Avestananya-, Armenian ail, Greek allos "another," Gothic aljis "other," Old English elles "otherwise, else," Modern English else).

Lenin Look up Lenin at
pseudonym or alias chosen c.1902 (for publishing clandestine political works in exile) by Russian revolutionary Vladimir Il'ich Ulyanov (1870-1924). Related: Leninist (1917);Leninism (1918).
allo- Look up allo- at
word-forming element meaning "other," from Greek allo-, comb. form of allos "other, different" (see alias (adv.)).
allergy (n.) Look up allergy at
1911, from German Allergie, coined 1906 by Austrian pediatrician Clemens E. von Pirquet (1874-1929) from Greek allos "other, different, strange" (see alias (adv.)) + ergon"activity" (see urge (v.)).
allopathy (n.) Look up allopathy at
1842, "treatment of disease by remedies that produce effects opposite to the symptoms," from German Allopathie (Hahnemann), from Greek allos "other" (see alias) + -patheia, "suffering, disease, feeling" (see -pathy). The term applied by homeopathists to traditional medicine.
alienate (v.) Look up alienate at
1540s, "make estranged" (in feelings or affections), from Latin alienatus, past participle of alienare "to make another's, estrange," from alienus "of or belonging to another person or place," from alius "(an)other" (see alias (adv.)). Related: Alienatedalienating.
alibi (n.) Look up alibi at
1743, "the plea of having been elsewhere when an action took place," from Latin alibi "elsewhere, somewhere else," locative of alius "(an)other" (see alias (adv.)). The weakened sense of "excuse" is attested since 1912, but technically any proof of innocence that doesn't involve being "elsewhere" is an excuse, not an alibi.
allele (n.) Look up allele at
1931, from German allel, abbreviation of allelomorph (1902), coined from Greek allel- "one another" (from allos "other;" see alias) + morphe "form" (see Morpheus).
parallax (n.) Look up parallax at
1570s, from Middle French parallaxe (mid-16c.), from Greek parallaxis "change, alteration, inclination of two lines meeting at an angle," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from para- (see para- (1)) + allassein "to change," from allos "other" (see alias). Related: Parallactic.
alien (adj.) Look up alien at
mid-14c., "strange, foreign," from Old French alien "alien, strange, foreign; an alien, stranger, foreigner," from Latin alienus "of or belonging to another, foreign, alien, strange," also, as a noun, "a stranger, foreigner," adjectival form of alius "(an)other" (see alias). Meaning "not of the Earth" first recorded 1920. An alien priory (c.1500) is one owing obedience to a mother abbey in a foreign country.
allegory (n.) Look up allegory at
late 14c., from Old French allegorie (12c.), from Latin allegoria, from Greek allegoria "figurative language, description of one thing under the image of another," literally "a speaking about something else," from allos "another, different" (see alias) + agoreuein "speak openly, speak in the assembly," from agora "assembly" (see agora).
parallel (adj.) Look up parallel at
1540s, from Middle French parallèle (16c.) and directly from Latin parallelus, from Greek parallelos "parallel," from para allelois "beside one another," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + allelois "each other," from allos "other" (see alias). As a noun from 1550s. Parallel bars as gymnastics apparatus are recorded from 1868.
alter (v.) Look up alter at
late 14c., "to change (something)," from Old French alterer "change, alter," from Medieval Latin alterare "to change," from Latin alter "the other (of the two)," from PIE *al-"beyond" (see alias (adv.)) + comparative suffix -ter (cf. other). Intransitive sense "to become otherwise" first recorded 1580s. Related: Alteredaltering.
else (adj.) Look up else at
Old English elles "other, otherwise, different," from Proto-Germanic *aljaz (cf. Gothic aljis "other," Old High German eli-lenti, Old English el-lende, both meaning "in a foreign land;" see also Alsace), an adverbial genitive of the neuter of PIE root *al- "beyond" (cf. Greek allos "other," Latin alius; see alias). Synonym of other, the nuances of usage are often arbitrary.

Productive of a number of handy compounds that somehow never got traction or have been suffered to fall from use: elsehow (1660s) "somehow or other;" elsewards (adv.), 1882, "somewhere else;" Old English elsewhat (pron.) " something else, anything else;" elsewhen (adv.), early 15c., "at another time; elsewhence (c.1600); elsewho (1540s). Among the survivors are elsewhereelsewise.
rum (n.) Look up rum at
"liquor from sugar cane or molasses," 1650s, shortening of rumbullion (1651), rombostion (1652), of uncertain origin, perhaps from rum (adj.).
The chiefe fudling they make in the Island [i.e. Barbados] is Rumbullion alias Kill-Devill, and this is made of suggar cane distilled, a hott, hellish and terrible liquor. ["A briefe Description of the Island of Barbados," 1651]
The English word was borrowed into Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, and Russian. Used since 1800 in North America as a general (hostile) name for intoxicating liquors.
Rum I take to be the name which unwashed moralists apply alike to the product distilled from molasses and the noblest juices of the vineyard. Burgundy in "all its sunset glow" is rum. Champagne, soul of "the foaming grape of Eastern France," is rum. ... Sir, I repudiate the loathsome vulgarism as an insult to the first miracle wrought by the Founder of our religion! [Oliver Wendell Holmes, "The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table," 1891]
other (adj.) Look up other at
Old English oþer "the second" (adj.), also as a pronoun, "one of the two, other," from Proto-Germanic *antharaz (cf. Old Saxon athar, Old Frisian other, Old Norse annarr, Middle Dutch and Dutch ander, Old High German andar, German ander, Gothic anþar "other").

These are from PIE *an-tero-, variant of *al-tero- "the other of two" (cf. Lithuanian antras, Sanskrit antarah "other, foreign," Latin alter), from root *al- "beyond" (see alias) + adjectival comparative suffix *-tero-. The Old English, Old Saxon, and Old Frisian forms show "a normal loss of n before fricatives" [Barnhart]. Meaning "different" is mid-13c.

Sense of "second" was detached from this word in English (which uses second, from Latin) and German (zweiter, from zwei "two") to avoid ambiguity. In Scandinavian, however, the second floor is still the "other" floor (e.g. Swedish andra, Danish anden). Also cf. Old English oþergeara "next year."

The other woman "a woman with whom a man begins a love affair while he is already committed" is from 1855. The other day originally (mid-12c.) was "the next day;" later (c.1300) "yesterday;" and now, loosely, "a day or two ago" (early 15c.). Phrase other half in reference to either the poor or the rich, is recorded from c.1600.
La moitié du monde ne sçayt comment l'aultre vit. [Rabelais, "Pantagruel," 1532]

sábado, 23 de noviembre de 2013

I wish you would  use here comprehensible english terms intended also for  non-english audiences

u classroom

[LIBRO] The Invisible Culture: Communication in Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Reservation.

Using four classrooms for comparison purposes (grades 1 and 6 at Warm Springs Reservation which contained 95% Indian students and similar grades in two classrooms at a nearby off-reservation town of Madras, Oregon, which contained 95% Anglo students), the book contends that the children of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation are enculturated in their preschool years into modes of organizing the transmission of verbal messages that are culturally different from those of Anglo middle-class children. It further maintains that this difference makes it more difficult for them to then comprehend verbal messges conveyed through the American school's Anglo middle-class modes of organizing classroom interaction. Part I covers verbal and nonverbal communication in the socialization of children (anthropological approach to language socialization, relation between verbal and nonverbal behavior in human communication, behavioral means for securing and conveying attention, and the plan of the book) and research methodology (purpose of the study, participant observation, classroom research, and community research). Part II discusses communication in the Warm Springs Indian Community and use of auditory and visual channels of communication among Warm Springs Indians. The last section outlines communication in the classroom--structure of classrooom interaction, comparison of Indian and Anglo communicative behavior in classroom, and conclusion. (AH)

SU Philips - 1983 - ERIC
... Record Details - ED226878. Title: The Invisible Culture: Communication in Classroom and
Community on the Warm Springs Reservation. Full-Text Availability Options: ... Title: The Invisible
Culture: Communication in Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Reservation. ...

Participant structures and communicative competence: Warm Springs children in community andclassroom

SU Philips - Functions of language in the classroom, 2001 -
Recent studies of North American Indian education problems have indicated that in many
ways Indian children are not culturally oriented to the ways in which classroom learning is
conducted. The Wax–Dumont study (Wax et al., 1964) of the Pine Ridge Sioux discusses ...

Results obtained searching  - U Classroom - in Google Scholar:

[LIBRO] Classroom-based evaluation in second language education

F Genesee, JA Upshur - 1996 - Cambridge Univ Press
... Fred Genesee and John A. Upshur. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Pp. xiv + 268. $44.95 cloth. How transparent a title is Genesee and Upshur's (G & U)
Classroom-Based Evaluation in Second Language Education? ...

Classroom response systems

TWU Dear - 2007 -
11 am to 1 pm | Thursday April 5 | SH 307. u Classroom Technology Open Lab Last week we
had a visit from Mr. Jeffrey Veatch of Lantek Communications. ... u Classroom Response Systems
Classroom Response Systems, also known as clickers, have a unique history. ...

Teachers' mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress

…, T Voss, A Jordan, Klusmann… - American Educational …, 2010 -
Abstract In both the United States and Europe, concerns have been raised about whether
preservice and in-service training succeeds in equipping teachers with the professional
knowledge they need to deliver consistently high-quality instruction. This article ...

[PDF] Defining versus describing the nature of science: A pragmatic analysis for classroom teachers and science educators

MU Smith, LC Scharmann - Science education, 1999 -
ABSTRACT: There appears to be an almost universal commitment among science
educators to promote the goal of student understanding of the nature of science. Recent
disagreements among philosophers of science and between philosophers and other ...

The virtual classroom: a virtual reality environment for the assessment and rehabilitation of attention deficits

…, L Humphrey, Neumann… - CyberPsychology & …, 2000 -
The Virtual Environments Laboratory at the University of Southern California (USC) has
initiated a research program aimed at developing virtual reality (VR) technology applications
for the study, assessment, and rehabilitation of cognitive/functional processes. This ...

Connected chemistry—incorporating interactive simulations into the chemistry classroom

M StieffWilensky - Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2003 - Springer
The aim of this paper is to describe a novel modeling and simulation package, connected
chemistry, and assess its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected chem-
istry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Its design goal is to ...

[LIBRO] The culture of the mathematics classroom

F Seeger, J Voigt, Waschescio - 1998 -
The culture of the mathematics classroom is becoming an increasingly salient topic of
discussion in mathematics education. Studying and changing what happens in the
classroom allows researchers and educators to recognize the social character of ...

A study of classroom-based phonological awareness training for preschoolers with speech and/or language disorders

A Kleeck, RB Gillam, TU McFadden - American Journal of Speech-Language …, 1998 - ASHA
Sixteen preschool children with speech and/or language disorders received phonological
awareness training for a period of 9 months. Eight children attended a preschool classroom,
and 8 children attended a pre-kindergarten classroom. The classrooms were located in a ...